In the world, the mushroom species currently classified as Tuber are about sixty, 25 of which are present in Italy. Only nine, however, are considered edible and are the most commonly traded.

The most valuable

The White Truffle of Alba or Acqualagna has a globular shape, often also flat and irregular, lobed, with cavities and protrusions. The peridium is smooth, more ‘slightly papillated, pale yellow or tending to greenish or ocher, sometimes with reddish-brown patches. The gleba, crossed by numerous fine white, sinuous and very ramified veins, has a variable color from milk to rosato, from hazel to brown. The dimensions can also be those of a large apple, exceptionally we find specimens weighing more than a kilo.

The harvest is allowed from late summer to early winter, but the prized white reaches full ripeness around the middle of October. It is an exclusively spontaneous mushroom: to date there is no possibility of cultivating it.

The Piedmont Region offers a production of undisputed merit, to which the Langhe, Roero, and the Monferrato compete, with offshoots in the hills east of Turin. Piedmont is the italian Region that can count on the territory of more extended production and where, therefore, is found the highest quantity of the most precious white truffles.

The white truffle is also found widespread in leopard patch in other Italian regions, which are: Emilia Romagna, Tuscany, Umbria, Lazio, Abruzzo, Molise.

To mention separately, the Marche Region where the town of Acqualagna has baptized one of the denominations of the precious white Truffle.

The black Truffle of Norcia I of Spoleto has a globular shape, sometimes lobed, with a warty brownish peridium. The gleba is of ebony black and violet-brown color, furrowed by thin veins that are clearer and more ramified.

It can reach and even exceed the size of a large apple. It is collected from mid-November to mid-March, particularly in the months of January and February. It is widespread in most of Italy. Cultivation of this Truffle is possible.

In Italy, the main areas of diffusion of the mushroom in the spontaneous state are located in Umbria (fine black) Marche, Piedmont, Liguria, Lombardy, Trentino, Lazio, Abruzzo, Campania.

The other species

Irregularly roundish, sometimes reniform, with cavity or basal depression, with a diameter between one and five centimeters, the Scorzone (Tuber aestivum) has a distinctly warty, rough to the touch, black or brownish and glebe of yellowish to hazelnut, marbled color. from numerous whitish veins.

Less demanding than other truffles in terms of climate and soil composition, it grows together with broad-leaved trees on various types of soil, in a range that extends across Europe and to some regions of North Africa and Turkey. Matures from May to the end of the summer.

Globose, with an exceptionally greater than five centimeters in diameter, the Bianchetto or Marzuolo truffle has a thin, smooth, pruinose, whitish or yellow-brown or reddish yellow and brown-purple glebe or reddish brown vein, covered with whitish or reddish white veins.

Born associated with broad-leaved trees and sometimes with conifers, in loose and sandy soils but also calcareous-clayey. Its adaptability to different pedoclimatic conditions makes it a ubiquitous species, widespread in most of Europe, in Italy it is present from the Alpine valleys to the islands, where it is collected between February and March.

The world of truffles is really vast. Also remember the other species, which are:

  • Winter Truffle (Tuber brumale)
  • Smooth black Truffle (Tuber macrosporum)
  • Moscato Truffle (Tuber brumale moschatum)
  • Hooked Truffle  (Truffle de Bourgogne)
  • Ordinary black Truffle (Tuber mesentericum)


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