Truffles are the fruiting body of mushrooms that are born and live underground, so they are hypogeal mushrooms, they belong to the family of Tuberaceae, class of Ascomycetes. They grow spontaneously in the soil on the roots of some trees and arboreal plants, in particular oaks, holm oaks, oaks and establish a symbiotic relationship with them. The exchange of substances between the truffle and the plants takes place at the root level. Truffles belong to the tuberaceous family, to the genus tuber, class of ascomycetes.
They consist of an outer wall called peridium, which can sometimes be smooth and sometimes wrinkled depending on the species and the soil in which it grows, and from a fleshy internal mass whose color varies from pink to gray, to white, to brown and it can be crossed by veins. The truffle is an extremely valuable and refined food, very expensive. The typical penetrating and persistent scent develops only after ripening and has the natural purpose of attracting (despite the land cover) wild animals (pig, wild boar, badger, dormouse, fox, etc.), to spread the contained spores and perpetuate the species.
Under the denomination of truffle are also included the terfezie, genus of the Terfeziaceae family, also called desert truffles. They are typical of the desert and semi-desert areas of the countries bordering the Mediterranean, where they are much appreciated. The truffles present the globular carpophore, with the outer surface (peridium) smooth or warty, the inside (gleba) marbled, brown spores, sub-globose or ellipsoidal, reticulate or spiny.
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